National Center for
1JAK: Streptomyces Plicatus Beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase In Complex With (2r, 3r,4s,5r)-2-Acetamido-3,4-Dihydroxy-5-Hydroxymethyl-Piperidinium Chloride (Ifg)
Biochemical and structural assessment of the 1-N-azasugar GalNAc-isofagomine as a potent family 20 beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase inhibitor
J. Biol. Chem. (2001) 276 p.42131-42137» All references (2)
Azasugar inhibitors of the isofagomine class are potent competitive inhibitors of configuration-retaining beta-glycosidases. This potency results from the formation of a strong electrostatic interaction between a protonated endocyclic nitrogen at the "anomeric" center of the inhibitor and the catalytic nucleophile of the enzyme. Although the majority of retaining beta-glycosidases use a mechanism involving a carboxylate residue as a nucleophile, Streptomyces plicatus beta-N-acetylhexos-aminidase (SpHEX) and related family 20 glycosidases lack such a catalytic residue and use instead the carbonyl oxygen of the 2-acetamido group of the substrate as a nucleophile to "attack" the anomeric center. Thus, a strong electrostatic interaction between the inhibitor and enzyme is not expected to occur; nonetheless, the 1-N-azasugar (2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-acetamido-3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-piperidinium hydrochloride (GalNAc-isofagomine.HCl), which was synthesized and assayed for its ability to inhibit SpHEX, was found to be a potent competitive inhibitor of the enzyme (K(i) = 2.7 microm). A crystallographic complex of GalNAc-isofagomine bound to SpHEX was solved and refined to 1.75 A and revealed that the lack of a strong electrostatic interaction between the "anomeric" center of GalNAc-isofagomine and SpHEX is compensated for by a novel 2.8-A hydrogen bond formed between the equatorial proton of the endocyclic nitrogen of the azasugar ring and the carboxylate of the general acid-base residue Glu-314 of SpHEX. This interaction appears to contribute to the unexpected potency of GalNAc-isofagomine toward SpHEX.