National Center for
1HZK: SOLUTION STRUCTURES OF C-1027 APOPROTEIN AND ITS COMPLEX WITH THE AROMATIZED CHROMOPHORE
J. Mol. Biol. (2001) 309 p.267-283
C-1027 is one of the most potent antitumor antibiotic chromoproteins, and is a 1:1 complex of an enediyne chromophore having DNA-cleaving ability and a carrier apoprotein. The three-dimensional solution structures of the 110 residue (10.5 kDa) C-1027 apoprotein and its complex with the aromatized chromophore have been determined separately by homonuclear two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance methods. The apoprotein is mainly composed of three antiparallel beta-sheets: four-stranded beta-sheet (43-45, 52-54; 30-38; 92-94; 104-106), three-stranded beta-sheet (4-6; 17-22; 61-66), and two-stranded beta-sheet (70-72; 83-85). The overall structure of the apoprotein is very similar to those of other chromoprotein apoproteins, such as neocarzinostatin and kedarcidin. A hydrophobic pocket with approximate dimensions of 14 A x 12 A x 8 A is formed by the four-stranded beta-sheet and the three loops (39-42; 75-79; 97-100). The holoprotein (complex form with the aromatized chromophore) structure reveals that the aromatized chromophore is bound to the hydrophobic pocket found in the apoprotein. The benzodihydropentalene core of the chromophore is located in the center of the pocket and other substituents (beta-tyrosine, benzoxazine, and aminosugar moieties) are arranged around the core. Major binding interactions between the apoprotein and the chromophore are likely the hydrophobic contacts between the core of the chromophore and the hydrophobic side-chains of the pocket-forming residues, which is supplemented by salt bridges and/or hydrogen bonds. Based on the holoprotein structure, we propose possible mechanisms for the stabilization and the release of chromophore by the apoprotein.