National Center for
1GWK: Carbohydrate Binding Module Family29
Promiscuity in ligand-binding: The three-dimensional structure of a Piromyces carbohydrate-binding module, CBM29-2, in complex with cello- and mannohexaose
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (2002) 99 p.14077-14082
Carbohydrate-protein recognition is central to many biological processes. Enzymes that act on polysaccharide substrates frequently contain noncatalytic domains, "carbohydrate-binding modules" (CBMs), that target the enzyme to the appropriate substrate. CBMs that recognize specific plant structural polysaccharides are often able to accommodate both the variable backbone and the side-chain decorations of heterogeneous ligands. "CBM29" modules, derived from a noncatalytic component of the Piromyces equi cellulase/hemicellulase complex, provide an example of this selective yet flexible recognition. They discriminate strongly against some polysaccharides while remaining relatively promiscuous toward both beta-1,4-linked manno- and cello-oligosaccharides. This feature may reflect preferential, but flexible, targeting toward glucomannans in the plant cell wall. The three-dimensional structure of CBM29-2 and its complexes with cello- and mannohexaose reveal a beta-jelly-roll topology, with an extended binding groove on the concave surface. The orientation of the aromatic residues complements the conformation of the target sugar polymer while accommodation of both manno- and gluco-configured oligo- and polysaccharides is conferred by virtue of the plasticity of the direct interactions from their axial and equatorial 2-hydroxyls, respectively. Such flexible ligand recognition targets the anaerobic fungal complex to a range of different components in the plant cell wall and thus plays a pivotal role in the highly efficient degradation of this composite structure by the microbial eukaryote.