National Center for
1GAZ: Crystal Structure of Mutant Human Lysozyme Substituted at the Surface Positions
Biochemistry (2000) 39 p.8655-8665» All references (2)
To clarify the role of amino acid residues at turns in the conformational stability and folding of a globular protein, six mutant human lysozymes deleted or substituted at turn structures were investigated by calorimetry, GuHCl denaturation experiments, and X-ray crystal analysis. The thermodynamic properties of the mutant and wild-type human lysozymes were compared and discussed on the basis of their three-dimensional structures. For the deletion mutants, Delta47-48 and Delta101, the deleted residues are in turns on the surface and are absent in human alpha-lactalbumin, which is homologous to human lysozyme in amino acid sequence and tertiary structure. The stability of both mutants would be expected to increase due to a decrease in conformational entropy in the denatured state; however, both proteins were destabilized. The destabilizations were mainly caused by the disappearance of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Each part deleted was recovered by the turn region like the alpha-lactalbumin structure, but there were differences in the main-chain conformation of the turn between each deletion mutant and alpha-lactalbumin even if the loop length was the same. For the point mutants, R50G, Q58G, H78G, and G37Q, the main-chain conformations of these substitution residues located in turns adopt a left-handed helical region in the wild-type structure. It is thought that the left-handed non-Gly residue has unfavorable conformational energy compared to the left-handed Gly residue. Q58G was stabilized, but the others had little effect on the stability. The structural analysis revealed that the turns could rearrange the main-chain conformation to accommodate the left-handed non-Gly residues. The present results indicate that turn structures are able to change their main-chain conformations, depending upon the side-chain features of amino acid residues on the turns. Furthermore, stopped-flow GuHCl denaturation experiments on the six mutants were performed. The effects of mutations on unfolding-refolding kinetics were significantly different among the mutant proteins. The deletion/substitutions in turns located in the alpha-domain of human lysozyme affected the refolding rate, indicating the contribution of turn structures to the folding of a globular protein.