National Center for
1FIF: N-ACETYLGALACTOSAMINE-SELECTIVE MUTANT OF MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-A (QPDWG-HDRPY)
Mechanism of pH-dependent N-acetylgalactosamine binding by a functional mimic of the hepatocyte asialoglycoprotein receptor
J. Biol. Chem. (2000) 275 p.35176-35184
Efficient release of ligands from the Ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) of the hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor at endosomal pH requires a small set of conserved amino acids that includes a critical histidine residue. When these residues are incorporated at corresponding positions in an homologous galactose-binding derivative of serum mannose-binding protein, the pH dependence of ligand binding becomes more like that of the receptor. The modified CRD displays 40-fold preferential binding to N-acetylgalactosamine compared with galactose, making it a good functional mimic of the asialoglycoprotein receptor. In the crystal structure of the modified CRD bound to N-acetylgalactosamine, the histidine (His(202)) contacts the 2-acetamido methyl group and also participates in a network of interactions involving Asp(212), Arg(216), and Tyr(218) that positions a water molecule in a hydrogen bond with the sugar amide group. These interactions appear to produce the preference for N-acetylgalactosamine over galactose and are also likely to influence the pK(a) of His(202). Protonation of His(202) would disrupt its interaction with an asparagine that serves as a ligand for Ca(2+) and sugar. The structure of the modified CRD without sugar displays several different conformations that may represent structures of intermediates in the release of Ca(2+) and sugar ligands caused by protonation of His(202).