National Center for
1DJ1: Crystal Structure Of R48a Mutant Of Cytochrome C Peroxidase
Unusual oxidative chemistry of N(omega)-hydroxyarginine and N-hydroxyguanidine catalyzed at an engineered cavity in a heme peroxidase
J. Biol. Chem. (2000) 275 p.8582-8591
Heme enzymes are capable of catalyzing a range of oxidative chemistry with high specificity, depending on the surrounding protein environment. We describe here a reaction catalyzed by a mutant of cytochrome c peroxidase, which is similar but distinct from those catalyzed by nitric-oxide synthase. In the R48A mutant, an expanded water-filled cavity was created above the distal heme face. N-hydroxyguanidine (NHG) but not guanidine was shown to bind in the cavity with K(d) = 8.5 mM, and coordinate to the heme to give a low spin state. Reaction of R48A with peroxide produced a Fe(IV)=O/Trp(.+) center capable of oxidizing either NHG or N(omega)-hydroxyarginine (NHA), but not arginine or guanidine, by a multi-turnover catalytic process. Oxidation of either NHG or NHA by R48A did not result in the accumulation of NO, NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), urea, or citrulline, but instead afforded a yellow product with absorption maxima of 257 and 400 nm. Mass spectrometry of the derivatized NHA products identified the yellow species as N-nitrosoarginine. We suggest that a nitrosylating agent, possibly derived from HNO, is produced by the oxidation of one molecule of substrate. This then reacts with a second substrate molecule to form the observed N-nitroso products. This complex chemistry illustrates how the active sites of enzymes such as nitric-oxide synthase may serve to prevent alternative reactions from occurring, in addition to enabling those desired.