National Center for
1AXH: ATRACOTOXIN-HVI FROM HADRONYCHE VERSUTA (AUSTRALIAN FUNNEL-WEB SPIDER, NMR, 20 STRUCTURES
The structure of a novel insecticidal neurotoxin, omega-atracotoxin-HV1, from the venom of an Australian funnel web spider
Nat. Struct. Biol. (1997) 4 p.559-566
A family of potent insecticidal toxins has recently been isolated from the venom of Australian funnel web spiders. Among these is the 37-residue peptide omega-atracotoxin-HV1 (omega-ACTX-HV1) from Hadronyche versuta. We have chemically synthesized and folded omega-ACTX-HV1, shown that it is neurotoxic, ascertained its disulphide bonding pattern, and determined its three-dimensional solution structure using NMR spectroscopy. The structure consists of a solvent-accessible beta-hairpin protruding from a disulphide-bonded globular core comprising four beta-turns. The three intramolecular disulphide bonds from a cystine knot motif similar to that seen in several other neurotoxic peptides. Despite limited sequence identity, omega-ACTX-HV1 displays significant structural homology with the omega-agatoxins and omega-conotoxins, both of which are vertebrate calcium channel antagonists; however, in contrast with these toxins, we show that omega-ACTX-HV1 inhibits insect, but not mammalian, voltage-gated calcium channel currents.