1A30: Hiv-1 Protease Complexed With A Tripeptide Inhibitor

The HIV-1 transframe region (TFR) is between the structural and functional domains of the Gag-Pol polyprotein, flanked by the nucleocapsid and the protease domains at its N and C termini, respectively. Transframe octapeptide (TFP) Phe-Leu-Arg-Glu-Asp-Leu-Ala-Phe, the N terminus of TFR, and its analogues are competitive inhibitors of the action of the mature HIV-1 protease. The smallest, most potent analogues are tripeptides: Glu-Asp-Leu and Glu-Asp-Phe with Ki values of approximately 50 and approximately 20 microM, respectively. Substitution of the acidic amino acids in the TFP by neutral amino acids and d or retro-d configurations of Glu-Asp-Leu results in an >40-fold increase in Ki. Protease inhibition by Glu-Asp-Leu is dependent on a protonated form of a group with a pKa of 3.8; unlike other inhibitors of HIV-1 protease which are highly hydrophobic, Glu-Asp-Leu is extremely soluble in water, and its binding affinity decreases with increasing NaCl concentration. However, Glu-Asp-Leu is a poor inhibitor (Ki approximately 7.5 mM) of the mammalian aspartic acid protease pepsin. X-ray crystallographic studies at pH 4.2 show that the interactions of Glu at P2 and Leu at P1 of Glu-Asp-Leu with residues of the active site of HIV-1 protease are similar to those of other product-enzyme complexes. It was not feasible to understand the interaction of intact TFP with HIV-1 protease under conditions of crystal growth due to its hydrolysis giving rise to two products. The sequence-specific, selective inhibition of the HIV-1 protease by the viral TFP suggests a role for TFP in regulating protease function during HIV-1 replication.
PDB ID: 1A30Download
MMDB ID: 7878
PDB Deposition Date: 1998/1/27
Updated in MMDB: 2012/11
Experimental Method:
x-ray diffraction
Resolution: 2  Å
Source Organism:
synthetic construct
Similar Structures:
Biological Unit for 1A30: trimeric; determined by author and by software (PISA)
Molecular Components in 1A30
Label Count Molecule
Proteins (3 molecules)
Hiv-1 Protease
Molecule annotation
Tripeptide Glu-asp-leu
Molecule annotation
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Citing MMDB