National Center for
5AX0: Crystal Structure Of The Cell-free Synthesized Membrane Protein, Acetabularia Rhodopsin I, At 1.52 Angstrom
Structural basis for the slow photocycle and late proton release in Acetabularia rhodopsin I from the marine plant Acetabularia acetabulum
Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (2015) 71 p.2203-2216
Although many crystal structures of microbial rhodopsins have been solved, those with sufficient resolution to identify the functional water molecules are very limited. In this study, the Acetabularia rhodopsin I (ARI) protein derived from the marine alga A. acetabulum was synthesized on a large scale by the Escherichia coli cell-free membrane-protein production method, and crystal structures of ARI were determined at the second highest (1.52-1.80 A) resolution for a microbial rhodopsin, following bacteriorhodopsin (BR). Examinations of the photochemical properties of ARI revealed that the photocycle of ARI is slower than that of BR and that its proton-transfer reactions are different from those of BR. In the present structures, a large cavity containing numerous water molecules exists on the extracellular side of ARI, explaining the relatively low pKa of Glu206(ARI), which cannot function as an initial proton-releasing residue at any pH. An interhelical hydrogen bond exists between Leu97(ARI) and Tyr221(ARI) on the cytoplasmic side, which facilitates the slow photocycle and regulates the pKa of Asp100(ARI), a potential proton donor to the Schiff base, in the dark state.