The small ubiquitin-related modifier SUMO-1 is a Ub/Ubl family member, and although SUMO-1 shares structural similarity to Ub, SUMO's cellular functions remain distinct insomuch as SUMO modification alters protein function through changes in activity, cellular localization, or by protecting substrates from ubiquitination. Rad60 family members contain functionally enigmatic, integral SUMO-like domains (SLDs). Despite their divergence from SUMO, each Rad60 SLD interacts with a subset of SUMO pathway enzymes: SLD2 specifically binds the SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme (Ubc9)), whereas SLD1 binds the SUMO E1 (Fub2, also called Uba2) activating and E3 (Pli1, also called Siz1 and Siz2) specificity enzymes. Structural analysis of Structure 2uyz reveals a mechanistic basis for the near-synonymous roles of Rad60 and SUMO in survival of genotoxic stress and suggest unprecedented DNA-damage-response functions for SLDs in regulating SUMOylation. The Rad60 branch of this family is also known as RENi (Rad60-Esc2-Nip45), and biologically it should be two distinct families SUMO and RENi (Rad60-Esc2-Nip45).