This family consists of several mammalian calcineurin-binding proteins. The calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin has been implicated in the transduction of signals that control the hypertrophy of cardiac muscle and slow fibre gene expression in skeletal muscle. Calsarcin-1 and calsarcin-2 are expressed in developing cardiac and skeletal muscle during embryogenesis, but calsarcin-1 is expressed specifically in adult cardiac and slow-twitch skeletal muscle, whereas calsarcin-2 is restricted to fast skeletal muscle. Calsarcins represent a novel family of sarcomeric proteins that link calcineurin with the contractile apparatus, thereby potentially coupling muscle activity to calcineurin activation. Calsarcin-3, is expressed specifically in skeletal muscle and is enriched in fast-twitch muscle fibers. Like calsarcin-1 and calsarcin-2, calsarcin-3 interacts with calcineurin, and the Z-disc proteins alpha-actinin, gamma-filamin, and telethonin.