This family comprises of several D-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr) deacylase proteins. Cell growth inhibition by several d-amino acids can be explained by an in vivo production of d-aminoacyl-tRNA molecules. Escherichia coli and yeast cells express an enzyme, d-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr) deacylase, capable of recycling such d-aminoacyl-tRNA molecules into free tRNA and d-amino acid. Accordingly, upon inactivation of the genes of the above deacylases, the toxicity of d-amino acids increases. Orthologues of the deacylase are found in many cells.