This family is highly conserved in species ranging from archaea to vertebrates and plants. The family contains several Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SBDS) proteins from both mouse and humans. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder with clinical features that include pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, haematological dysfunction and skeletal abnormalities. It is characterized by bone marrow failure and leukemia predisposition. Members of this family play a role in RNA metabolism. In yeast these proteins have been shown to be critical for the release and recycling of the nucleolar shuttling factor Tif6 from pre-60S ribosomes, a key step in 60S maturation and translational activation of ribosomes. This data links defective late 60S subunit maturation to an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome associated with leukemia predisposition.