Acetyl-CoA synthetase (also known as acetate-CoA ligase and acetyl-activating enzyme)
Acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) catalyzes the formation of acetyl-CoA from acetate, CoA, and ATP. Synthesis of acetyl-CoA is carried out in a two-step reaction. In the first step, the enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of acetyl-AMP intermediate from acetate and ATP. In the second step, acetyl-AMP reacts with CoA to produce acetyl-CoA. This enzyme is widely present in all living organisms. The activity of this enzyme is crucial for maintaining the required levels of acetyl-CoA, a key intermediate in many important biosynthetic and catabolic processes. Acetyl-CoA is used in the biosynthesis of glucose, fatty acids, and cholesterol. It can also be used in the production of energy in the citric acid cycle. Eukaryotes typically have two isoforms of acetyl-CoA synthetase, a cytosolic form involved in biosynthetic processes and a mitochondrial form primarily involved in energy generation.