Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolase is a member of the Nudix hydrolase superfamily. Members of this family are well represented in a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Phylogenetic analysis reveals two distinct subgroups where plant enzymes fall into one group (represented by this subfamily) and fungi/animals/archaea enzymes fall into another. Bacterial enzymes are found in both subfamilies. Ap4A is a potential by-product of aminoacyl tRNA synthesis, and accumulation of Ap4A has been implicated in a range of biological events, such as DNA replication, cellular differentiation, heat shock, metabolic stress, and apoptosis. Ap4A hydrolase cleaves Ap4A asymmetrically into ATP and AMP. It is important in the invasive properties of bacteria and thus presents a potential target for the inhibition of such invasive bacteria. Besides the signature nudix motif (G[X5]E[X7]REUXEEXGU where U is Ile, Leu, or Val), Ap4A hydrolase is structurally similar to the other members of the nudix superfamily with some degree of variations. Several regions in the sequences are poorly defined and substrate and metal binding sites are only predicted based on kinetic studies.