TRX domain, novel NADPH thioredoxin reductase (NTR) family; composed of fusion proteins found only in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms containing both TRX and NTR domains. The TRX domain functions as a protein disulfide reductase via the reversible oxidation of an active center dithiol present in a CXXC motif, while the NTR domain functions as a reductant to oxidized TRX. The fusion protein is bifunctional, showing both TRX and NTR activities, but it is not an independent NTR/TRX system. In plants, the protein is found exclusively in shoots and mature leaves and is localized in the chloroplast. It is involved in plant protection against oxidative stress.
Comment:Disulfide bond reduction by thioredoxin is initiated by deprotonation of the solvent-exposed N-terminal cysteine in the CXXC motif to form a thiolate. The pKa of this thiol must be near physiological pH to achieve maximal catalysis.