Ribosomal_L16_L10e: L16 is an essential protein in the large ribosomal subunit of bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. Large subunits that lack L16 are defective in peptidyl transferase activity, peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis activity, association with the 30S subunit, binding of aminoacyl-tRNA and interaction with antibiotics. L16 is required for the function of elongation factor P (EF-P), a protein involved in peptide bond synthesis through the stimulation of peptidyl transferase activity by the ribosome. Mutations in L16 and the adjoining bases of 23S rRNA confer antibiotic resistance in bacteria, suggesting a role for L16 in the formation of the antibiotic binding site. The GTPase RbgA (YlqF) is essential for the assembly of the large subunit, and it is believed to regulate the incorporation of L16. L10e is the archaeal and eukaryotic cytosolic homolog of bacterial L16. L16 and L10e exhibit structural differences at the N-terminus.