phosphoacceptor receiver (REC) domain of response regulators (RRs) and pseudo response regulators (PRRs)Two-component systems (TCSs) involving a sensor and a response regulator are used by bacteria to adapt to changing environments. Processes regulated by two-component systems in bacteria include sporulation, pathogenicity, virulence, chemotaxis, and membrane transport. Response regulators (RRs) share the common phosphoacceptor REC domain and different effector/output domains such as DNA, RNA, ligand-binding, protein-binding, or enzymatic domains. Response regulators regulate transcription, post-transcription or post-translation, or have functions such as methylesterases, adenylate or diguanylate cyclase, c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterases, histidine kinases, serine/threonine protein kinases, and protein phosphatases, depending on their output domains. The function of some output domains are still unknown. TCSs are found in all three domains of life - bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, however, the presence and abundance of particular RRs vary between the lineages. Archaea encode very few RRs with DNA-binding output domains; most are stand-alone REC domains. Among eukaryotes, TCSs are found primarily in protozoa, fungi, algae, and green plants. REC domains function as phosphorylation-mediated switches within RRs, but some also transfer phosphoryl groups in multistep phosphorelays.