bHLH proteins are transcriptional regulators that are found in organisms from yeast to humans. Members of the bHLH superfamily have two highly conserved and functionally distinct regions. The basic part is at the amino end of the bHLH that may bind DNA to a consensus hexanucleotide sequence known as the E box (CANNTG). Different families of bHLH proteins recognize different E-box consensus sequences. At the carboxyl-terminal end of the region is the HLH region that interacts with other proteins to form homo- and heterodimers. bHLH proteins function as a diverse set of regulatory factors because they recognize different DNA sequences and dimerize with different proteins. The bHLH proteins can be divided to cell-type specific and widely expressed proteins. The cell-type specific members of bHLH superfamily are involved in cell-fate determination and act in neurogenesis, cardiogenesis, myogenesis, and hematopoiesis.