The Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) homology domain is an intracellular signalling domain found in MyD88, interleukin 1 receptor and the Toll receptor. It contains three highly-conserved regions, and mediates protein-protein interactions between the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and signal-transduction components. TIR-like motifs are also found in plant proteins thought to be involved in resistance to disease. When activated, TIR domains recruit cytoplasmic adaptor proteins MyD88 and TOLLIP (Toll interacting protein). In turn, these associate with various kinases to set off signalling cascades.