FYVE, RhoGEF and PH domain containing/faciogenital dysplasia protein 5, N-terminal Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domainFGD5 regulates promotes angiogenesis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in vascular endothelial cells, including network formation, permeability, directional movement, and proliferation. In general, FGDs have a RhoGEF (DH) domain, followed by a PH domain, a FYVE domain and a C-terminal PH domain. All FGDs are guanine nucleotide exchange factors that activate the Rho GTPase Cdc42, an important regulator of membrane trafficking. The RhoGEF domain is responsible for GEF catalytic activity, while the PH domain is involved in intracellular targeting of the DH domain. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and in lipid associated enzymes.