Arl3 (Arf-like 3) is an Arf family protein that differs from most Arf family members in the N-terminal extension. In is inactive, GDP-bound form, the N-terminal extension forms an elongated loop that is hydrophobically anchored into the membrane surface; however, it has been proposed that this region might form a helix in the GTP-bound form. The delta subunit of the rod-specific cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase type 6 (PDEdelta) is an Arl3 effector. Arl3 binds microtubules in a regulated manner to alter specific aspects of cytokinesis via interactions with retinitis pigmentosa 2 (RP2). It has been proposed that RP2 functions in concert with Arl3 to link the cell membrane and the cytoskeleton in photoreceptors as part of the cell signaling or vesicular transport machinery. In mice, the absence of Arl3 is associated with abnormal epithelial cell proliferation and cyst formation.