Ras homology family 3 (Rho3) of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases)
Rho3 is a member of the Rho family found only in fungi. Rho3 is believed to regulate cell polarity by interacting with the diaphanous/formin family protein For3 to control both the actin cytoskeleton and microtubules. Rho3 is also believed to have a direct role in exocytosis that is independent of its role in regulating actin polarity. The function in exocytosis may be two-pronged: first, in the transport of post-Golgi vesicles from the mother cell to the bud, mediated by myosin (Myo2); second, in the docking and fusion of vesicles to the plasma membrane, mediated by an exocyst (Exo70) protein. Most Rho proteins contain a lipid modification site at the C-terminus, with a typical sequence motif CaaX, where a = an aliphatic amino acid and X = any amino acid. Lipid binding is essential for membrane attachment, a key feature of most Rho proteins.