cd05052: PTKc_Abl (this model, PSSM-Id:173633 is obsolete and has been replaced by 270645)
Catalytic domain of the Protein Tyrosine Kinase, Abelson kinase
Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; Abelson (Abl) kinase; catalytic (c) domain. The PTKc family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine (tyr) residues in protein substrates. Abl (or c-Abl) is a ubiquitously-expressed cytoplasmic (or nonreceptor) tyr kinase that contains SH3, SH2, and tyr kinase domains in its N-terminal region, as well as nuclear localization motifs, a putative DNA-binding domain, and F- and G-actin binding domains in its C-terminal tail. It also contains a short autoinhibitory cap region in its N-terminus. Abl is normally inactive and requires phosphorylation and myristoylation for activation. Abl function depends on its subcellular localization. In the cytoplasm, Abl plays a role in cell proliferation and survival. In response to DNA damage or oxidative stress, Abl is transported to the nucleus where it induces apoptosis. In chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients, an aberrant translocation results in the replacement of the first exon of Abl with the BCR (breakpoint cluster region) gene. The resulting BCR-Abl fusion protein is constitutively active and associates into tetramers, resulting in a hyperactive kinase sending a continuous signal. This leads to uncontrolled proliferation, morphological transformation and anti-apoptotic effects. BCR-Abl is the target of selective inhibitors, such as imatinib (Gleevec), used in the treatment of CML. Abl2, also known as ARG (Abelson-related gene), is thought to play a cooperative role with Abl in the proper development of the nervous system. The Tel-ARG fusion protein, resulting from reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 1 and 12, is associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The TEL gene is a frequent fusion partner of other tyr kinase oncogenes, including Tel/Abl, Tel/PDGFRbeta, and Tel/Jak2, found in patients with leukemia and myeloproliferative disorders.