The phosphoinositide binding Phox Homology domain of the p40phox subunit of NADPH oxidase
The PX domain is a phosphoinositide binding module present in many proteins with diverse functions such as cell signaling, vesicular trafficking, protein sorting, and lipid modification, among others. p40phox contains an N-terminal PX domain, a central SH3 domain that binds p47phox, and a C-terminal PB1 domain that interacts with p67phox. It is a cytosolic subunit of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase complex (also called Nox2 or gp91phox) which plays a crucial role in the cellular response to bacterial infection. NADPH oxidase catalyzes the transfer of electrons from NADPH to oxygen during phagocytosis forming superoxide and reactive oxygen species. p40phox positively regulates NADPH oxidase in both phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P)-dependent and PI3P-independent manner. The PX domain is a phospholipid-binding module involved in the membrane targeting of proteins. The p40phox PX domain binds to PI3P, an abundant lipid in phagosomal membranes, playing an important role in the localization of NADPH oxidase. The PX domain of p40phox is also involved in protein-protein interaction.
Comment:Two basic residues are key in binding with phosphoinositides: one forms hydrogen bonds with the 3-phosphate of PI(3)P and another forms hydrogen bonds with the 4-and 5-hydroxyl groups of PI(3)P.