Class Ia major histocompatibility complex (MHC) immunoglobulin domain of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B and similar proteins; member of the C1-set of Ig superfamily (IgSF) domains
The members here are composed of the class Ia major histocompatibility complex (MHC) immunoglobulin domain of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B and similar proteins. The classical class I molecules (HLA-A, -B, and -C) are responsible for the presentation of endogenous antigen to CD8+ T cells. The receptor is a heterodimer, and is composed of a heavy alpha chain and smaller beta chain. The alpha chain is encoded by a variant HLA-B gene, and the beta chain (beta-2-microglobulin) is an invariant beta-2-microglobulin molecule. The beta-2-microglobulin protein is coded for by a separate region of the human genome. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B*3501 (B35) is a common human allele involved in mediating protective immunity against HIV. Class I MHC proteins bind antigenic peptide fragments and present them to CD8+ T lymphocytes. Class I molecules consist of a transmembrane alpha chain and a small chain called the beta-2-microglobulin. The alpha chain contains three extracellular domains, two of which fold together to form the peptide-binding cleft (alpha1 and alpha2), and one which has an Ig fold (alpha3). Peptide binding to class I molecules occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and involves both chaperones and dedicated factors to assist in peptide loading. Class I MHC molecules are expressed on most nucleated cells.