Class Ib major histocompatibility complex (MHC) immunoglobulin domain of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) F; member of the C1-set of Ig superfamily (IgSF) domains
The members here are composed of the Class Ib major histocompatibility complex (MHC) immunoglobulin domain of human leukocyte antigen alpha chain F (HLA-F). HLA-F, encoded by the HLA-F gene in humans, belongs to the non-classical HLA class I heavy chain paralogs. This class I molecule mainly exists as a heterodimer associated with the invariant light chain beta-2-microglobulin. HLA-F molecules can interact with both activating and inhibitory receptors on immune cells, such as NK cells, and can present a diverse panel of peptides. Class I MHC proteins bind antigenic peptide fragments and present them to CD8+ T lymphocytes. Class I molecules consist of a transmembrane alpha chain and a small chain called the beta-2-microglobulin. The alpha chain contains three extracellular domains, two of which fold together to form the peptide-binding cleft (alpha1 and alpha2), and one which has an Ig fold (alpha3). Peptide binding to class I molecules occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and involves both chaperones and dedicated factors to assist in peptide loading. Class I MHC molecules are expressed on most nucleated cells.