protein kinase C conserved region 1 (C1 domain) found in VAV proteins
VAV proteins function both as cytoplasmic guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rho GTPases and as scaffold proteins, and they play important roles in cell signaling by coupling cell surface receptors to various effector functions. They play key roles in processes that require cytoskeletal reorganization including immune synapse formation, phagocytosis, cell spreading, and platelet aggregation, among others. Vertebrates have three VAV proteins (VAV1, VAV2, and VAV3). VAV proteins contain several domains that enable their function: N-terminal calponin homology (CH), acidic, RhoGEF (also called Dbl-homologous or DH), Pleckstrin Homology (PH), C1 (zinc finger), SH2, and two SH3 domains. This model corresponds to the C1 domain. The C1 domain is a cysteine-rich zinc binding domain that does not bind DNA nor possess structural similarity to conventional zinc finger domains; it contains two separate Zn(2+)-binding sites.