class B family of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptorsThe class B of seven-transmembrane GPCRs is classified into three major subfamilies: subfamily B1 (secretin-like receptor family), B2 (adhesion family), and B3 (Methuselah-like family). The class B receptors have been identified in all the vertebrates, from fishes to mammals, as well as invertebrates including Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, but are not present in plants, fungi or prokaryotes. The B1 subfamily comprises receptors for polypeptide hormones of 27-141 amino-acid residues such as secretin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide (GLP), calcitonin gene-related peptide, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and corticotropin-releasing factor. These receptors contain the large N-terminal extracellular domain (ECD), which plays a critical role in hormone recognition by binding to the C-terminal portion of the peptide. On the other hand, the N-terminal segment of the hormone induces receptor activation by interacting with the receptor transmembrane domains and connecting extracellular loops, triggering intracellular signaling pathways. All members of the subfamily B1 receptors preferentially couple to G proteins of G(s) family, which positively stimulate adenylate cyclase, leading to increased intracellular cAMP formation and calcium influx. The subfamily B2 consists of cell-adhesion receptors with 33 members in humans and vertebrates. The adhesion receptors are characterized by the presence of large N-terminal extracellular domains containing a variety of structural motifs, which play critical roles in cell-cell adhesion and cell-matrix interactions, linked to a class B seven-transmembrane domain. These include, for example, EGF (epidermal growth factor)-like domains in CD97, Celsr1 (cadherin family member), Celsr2, Celsr3, EMR1 (EGF-module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1), EMR2, EMR3, and Flamingo; two laminin A G-type repeats and nine cadherin domains in Flamingo and its human orthologs Celsr1, Celsr2 and Celsr3; olfactomedin-like domains in the latrotoxin receptors; and five or four thrombospondin type 1 repeats in BAI1 (brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1), BAI2 and BAI3. Almost all adhesion receptors, except GPR123, contain an evolutionarily conserved GPCR- autoproteolysis inducing (GAIN) domain that undergoes autoproteolytic processing at the GPCR proteolysis site (GPS) motif located immediately N-terminal to the first transmembrane region, to generate N- and C-terminal fragments (NTF and CTF), which may serve important biological functions. Furthermore, the subfamily B3 includes Methuselah (Mth) protein, which was originally identified in Drosophila as a GPCR affecting stress resistance and aging, and its closely related proteins.