RNA recognition motif 2 (RRM2) found in polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTB or hnRNP I) and similar proteins
This subfamily corresponds to the RRM2 of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTB or hnRNP I), polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 2 (PTBP2 or nPTB), regulator of differentiation 1 (Rod1), and similar proteins found in Metazoa. PTB is an important negative regulator of alternative splicing in mammalian cells and also functions at several other aspects of mRNA metabolism, including mRNA localization, stabilization, polyadenylation, and translation. PTBP2 is highly homologous to PTB and is perhaps specific to the vertebrates. Unlike PTB, PTBP2 is enriched in the brain and in some neural cell lines. It binds more stably to the downstream control sequence (DCS) RNA than PTB does but is a weaker repressor of splicing in vitro. PTBP2 also greatly enhances the binding of two other proteins, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) H and KH-type splicing-regulatory protein (KSRP), to the DCS RNA. The binding properties of PTBP2 and its reduced inhibitory activity on splicing imply roles in controlling the assembly of other splicing-regulatory proteins. PTBP2 also contains four RRMs. ROD1 coding protein Rod1 is a mammalian PTB homolog of a regulator of differentiation in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, where the nrd1 gene encodes an RNA binding protein negatively regulates the onset of differentiation. ROD1 is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells or organs. It may play a role controlling differentiation in mammals. All members in this family contain four RNA recognition motifs (RRM), also known as RBD (RNA binding domain) or RNP (ribonucleoprotein domain).