RNA recognition motif 1 (RRM1) found in CUGBP Elav-like family member CELF-1, CELF-2, Drosophila melanogaster Bruno protein and similar proteins
This subgroup corresponds to the RRM1 of CELF-1, CELF-2 and Bruno protein. CELF-1 (also termed BRUNOL-2, or CUG-BP1, or EDEN-BP) and CELF-2 (also termed BRUNOL-3, or ETR-3, or CUG-BP2, or NAPOR) belong to the CUGBP1 and ETR-3-like factors (CELF) or BRUNOL (Bruno-like) family of RNA-binding proteins that have been implicated in regulation of pre-mRNA splicing, and control of mRNA translation and deadenylation. CELF-1 is strongly expressed in all adult and fetal tissues tested. The human CELF-1 is a nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein that regulates multiple aspects of nuclear and cytoplasmic mRNA processing, with implications for onset of type 1 myotonic dystrophy (DM1), a neuromuscular disease associated with an unstable CUG triplet expansion in the 3'-UTR (3'-untranslated region) of the DMPK (myotonic dystrophy protein kinase) gene; it preferentially targets UGU-rich mRNA elements. It has been shown to bind to a Bruno response element, a cis-element involved in translational control of oskar mRNA in Drosophila, and share sequence similarity to Bruno, the Drosophila protein that mediates this process. The Xenopus homolog embryo deadenylation element-binding protein (EDEN-BP) mediates sequence-specific deadenylation of Eg5 mRNA. It binds specifically to the EDEN motif in the 3'-untranslated regions of maternal mRNAs and targets these mRNAs for deadenylation and translational repression. CELF-1 contain three highly conserved RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), also known as RBDs (RNA binding domains) or RNPs (ribonucleoprotein domains): two consecutive RRMs (RRM1 and RRM2) situated in the N-terminal region followed by a linker region and the third RRM (RRM3) close to the C-terminus of the protein. The two N-terminal RRMs of EDEN-BP are necessary for the interaction with EDEN as well as a part of the linker region (between RRM2 and RRM3). Oligomerization of EDEN-BP is required for specific mRNA deadenylation and binding. CELF-2 is expressed in all tissues at some level, but highest in brain, heart, and thymus. It has been implicated in the regulation of nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA processing events, including alternative splicing, RNA editing, stability and translation. CELF-2 shares high sequence identity with CELF-1, but shows different binding specificity; it binds preferentially to sequences with UG repeats and UGUU motifs. It has been shown to bind to a Bruno response element, a cis-element involved in translational control of oskar mRNA in Drosophila, and share sequence similarity to Bruno, the Drosophila protein that mediates this process. It also binds to the 3'-UTR of cyclooxygenase-2 messages, affecting both translation and mRNA stability, and binds to apoB mRNA, regulating its C to U editing. CELF-2 also contains three highly conserved RRMs. It binds to RNA via the first two RRMs, which are also important for localization in the cytoplasm. The splicing activation or repression activity of CELF-2 on some specific substrates is mediated by RRM1/RRM2. Both, RRM1 and RRM2 of CELF-2, can activate cardiac troponin T (cTNT) exon 5 inclusion. In addition, CELF-2 possesses a typical arginine and lysine-rich nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the C-terminus, within RRM3. This subgroup also includes Drosophila melanogaster Bruno protein, which plays a central role in regulation of Oskar (Osk) expression in flies. It mediates repression by binding to regulatory Bruno response elements (BREs) in the Osk mRNA 3' UTR. The full-length Bruno protein contains three RRMs, two located in the N-terminal half of the protein and the third near the C-terminus, separated by a linker region.