RNA recognition motif (RRM) found in cold inducible RNA binding protein (CIRBP), RNA binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) and similar proteins
This subfamily corresponds to the RRM domain of two structurally related heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoproteins, CIRBP (also termed CIRP or A18 hnRNP) and RBM3 (also termed RNPL), both of which belong to a highly conserved cold shock proteins family. The cold shock proteins can be induced after exposure to a moderate cold-shock and other cellular stresses such as UV radiation and hypoxia. CIRBP and RBM3 may function in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by binding to different transcripts, thus allowing the cell to response rapidly to environmental signals. However, the kinetics and degree of cold induction are different between CIRBP and RBM3. Tissue distribution of their expression is different. CIRBP and RBM3 may be differentially regulated under physiological and stress conditions and may play distinct roles in cold responses of cells. CIRBP, also termed glycine-rich RNA-binding protein CIRP, is localized in the nucleus and mediates the cold-induced suppression of cell cycle progression. CIRBP also binds DNA and possibly serves as a chaperone that assists in the folding/unfolding, assembly/disassembly and transport of various proteins. RBM3 may enhance global protein synthesis and the formation of active polysomes while reducing the levels of ribonucleoprotein complexes containing microRNAs. RBM3 may also serve to prevent the loss of muscle mass by its ability to decrease cell death. Furthermore, RBM3 may be essential for cell proliferation and mitosis. Both, CIRBP and RBM3, contain an N-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM), also termed RBD (RNA binding domain) or RNP (ribonucleoprotein domain), that is involved in RNA binding, and C-terminal glycine-rich domain (RGG motif) that probably enhances RNA-binding via protein-protein and/or protein-RNA interactions. Like CIRBP, RBM3 can also bind to both RNA and DNA via its RRM domain.