RNA recognition motif (RRM) found in vertebrate RNA binding protein fox-1 homologs and similar proteins
This subfamily corresponds to the RRM of several tissue-specific alternative splicing isoforms of vertebrate RNA binding protein Fox-1 homologs, which show high sequence similarity to the Caenorhabditis elegans feminizing locus on X (Fox-1) gene encoding Fox-1 protein. RNA binding protein Fox-1 homolog 1 (RBFOX1), also termed ataxin-2-binding protein 1 (A2BP1), or Fox-1 homolog A, or hexaribonucleotide-binding protein 1 (HRNBP1), is predominantly expressed in neurons, skeletal muscle and heart. It regulates alternative splicing of tissue-specific exons by binding to UGCAUG elements. Moreover, RBFOX1 binds to the C-terminus of ataxin-2 and forms an ataxin-2/A2BP1 complex involved in RNA processing. RNA binding protein fox-1 homolog 2 (RBFOX2), also termed Fox-1 homolog B, or hexaribonucleotide-binding protein 2 (HRNBP2), or RNA-binding motif protein 9 (RBM9), or repressor of tamoxifen transcriptional activity, is expressed in ovary, whole embryo, and human embryonic cell lines in addition to neurons and muscle. RBFOX2 activates splicing of neuron-specific exons through binding to downstream UGCAUG elements. RBFOX2 also functions as a repressor of tamoxifen activation of the estrogen receptor. RNA binding protein Fox-1 homolog 3 (RBFOX3 or NeuN or HRNBP3), also termed Fox-1 homolog C, is a nuclear RNA-binding protein that regulates alternative splicing of the RBFOX2 pre-mRNA, producing a message encoding a dominant negative form of the RBFOX2 protein. Its message is detected exclusively in post-mitotic regions of embryonic brain. Like RBFOX1, both RBFOX2 and RBFOX3 bind to the hexanucleotide UGCAUG elements and modulate brain and muscle-specific splicing of exon EIIIB of fibronectin, exon N1 of c-src, and calcitonin/CGRP. Members in this family also harbor one RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), also termed RBDs (RNA binding domains) or RNPs (ribonucleoprotein domains).