RNA recognition motif (RRM) found in cleavage stimulation factor subunit 2 (CSTF2), yeast ortholog mRNA 3'-end-processing protein RNA15 and similar proteins
This subfamily corresponds to the RRM domain of CSTF2, its tau variant and eukaryotic homologs. CSTF2, also termed cleavage stimulation factor 64 kDa subunit (CstF64), is the vertebrate conterpart of yeast mRNA 3'-end-processing protein RNA15. It is expressed in all somatic tissues and is one of three cleavage stimulatory factor (CstF) subunits required for polyadenylation. CstF64 contains an N-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM), also known as RBD (RNA binding domain) or RNP (ribonucleoprotein domain), a CstF77-binding domain, a repeated MEARA helical region and a conserved C-terminal domain reported to bind the transcription factor PC-4. During polyadenylation, CstF interacts with the pre-mRNA through the RRM of CstF64 at U- or GU-rich sequences within 10 to 30 nucleotides downstream of the cleavage site. CSTF2T, also termed tauCstF64, is a paralog of the X-linked cleavage stimulation factor CstF64 protein that supports polyadenylation in most somatic cells. It is expressed during meiosis and subsequent haploid differentiation in a more limited set of tissues and cell types, largely in meiotic and postmeiotic male germ cells, and to a lesser extent in brain. The loss of CSTF2T will cause male infertility, as it is necessary for spermatogenesis and fertilization. Moreover, CSTF2T is required for expression of genes involved in morphological differentiation of spermatids, as well as for genes having products that function during interaction of motile spermatozoa with eggs. It promotes germ cell-specific patterns of polyadenylation by using its RRM to bind to different sequence elements downstream of polyadenylation sites than does CstF64. The family also includes yeast ortholog mRNA 3'-end-processing protein RNA15 and similar proteins. RNA15 is a core subunit of cleavage factor IA (CFIA), an essential transcriptional 3'-end processing factor from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RNA recognition by CFIA is mediated by an N-terminal RRM, which is contained in the RNA15 subunit of the complex. The RRM of RNA15 has a strong preference for GU-rich RNAs, mediated by a binding pocket that is entirely conserved in both yeast and vertebrate RNA15 orthologs.