RNA recognition motif 1 (RRM1) found in ribonucleoprotein PTB-binding raver-1, raver-2 and similar proteins
This subfamily corresponds to the RRM1 of raver-1 and raver-2. Raver-1 is a ubiquitously expressed heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) that serves as a co-repressor of the nucleoplasmic splicing repressor polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB)-directed splicing of select mRNAs. It shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus and can accumulate in the perinucleolar compartment, a dynamic nuclear substructure that harbors PTB. Raver-1 also modulates focal adhesion assembly by binding to the cytoskeletal proteins, including alpha-actinin, vinculin, and metavinculin (an alternatively spliced isoform of vinculin) at adhesion complexes, particularly in differentiated muscle tissue. Raver-2 is a novel member of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) family. It shows high sequence homology to raver-1. Raver-2 exerts a spatio-temporal expression pattern during embryogenesis and is mainly limited to differentiated neurons and glia cells. Although it displays nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling in heterokaryons, raver2 localizes to the nucleus in glia cells and neurons. Raver-2 can interact with PTB and may participate in PTB-mediated RNA-processing. However, there is no evidence indicating that raver-2 can bind to cytoplasmic proteins. Both, raver-1 and raver-2, contain three N-terminal RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), also termed RBDs (RNA binding domains) or RNPs (ribonucleoprotein domains), two putative nuclear localization signals (NLS) at the N- and C-termini, a central leucine-rich region, and a C-terminal region harboring two [SG][IL]LGxxP motifs. They binds to RNA through the RRMs. In addition, the two [SG][IL]LGxxP motifs serve as the PTB-binding motifs in raver1. However, raver-2 interacts with PTB through the SLLGEPP motif only.