RNA recognition motif 2 (RRM2) found in granule-associated RNA binding proteins (p40-TIA-1 and TIAR), and yeast nuclear and cytoplasmic polyadenylated RNA-binding protein PUB1
This subfamily corresponds to the RRM3 of TIA-1, TIAR, and PUB1. Nucleolysin TIA-1 isoform p40 (p40-TIA-1 or TIA-1) and nucleolysin TIA-1-related protein (TIAR) are granule-associated RNA binding proteins involved in inducing apoptosis in cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) target cells. They share high sequence similarity and are expressed in a wide variety of cell types. TIA-1 can be phosphorylated by a serine/threonine kinase that is activated during Fas-mediated apoptosis.TIAR is mainly localized in the nucleus of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. It is translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in response to exogenous triggers of apoptosis. Both TIA-1 and TIAR bind specifically to poly(A) but not to poly(C) homopolymers. They are composed of three N-terminal highly homologous RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), also termed RBDs (RNA binding domains) or RNPs (ribonucleoprotein domains), and a glutamine-rich C-terminal auxiliary domain containing a lysosome-targeting motif. TIA-1 and TIAR interact with RNAs containing short stretches of uridylates and their RRM2 can mediate the specific binding to uridylate-rich RNAs. The C-terminal auxiliary domain may be responsible for interacting with other proteins. In addition, TIA-1 and TIAR share a potential serine protease-cleavage site (Phe-Val-Arg) localized at the junction between their RNA binding domains and their C-terminal auxiliary domains. This subfamily also includes a yeast nuclear and cytoplasmic polyadenylated RNA-binding protein PUB1, termed ARS consensus-binding protein ACBP-60, or poly uridylate-binding protein, or poly(U)-binding protein, which has been identified as both a heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding protein (hnRNP) and a cytoplasmic mRNA-binding protein (mRNP). It may be stably bound to a translationally inactive subpopulation of mRNAs within the cytoplasm. PUB1 is distributed in both, the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and binds to poly(A)+ RNA (mRNA or pre-mRNA). Although it is one of the major cellular proteins cross-linked by UV light to polyadenylated RNAs in vivo, PUB1 is nonessential for cell growth in yeast. PUB1 also binds to T-rich single stranded DNA (ssDNA); however, there is no strong evidence implicating PUB1 in the mechanism of DNA replication. PUB1 contains three RRMs, and a GAR motif (glycine and arginine rich stretch) that is located between RRM2 and RRM3.