RNA recognition motif 1 (RRM1) found in granule-associated RNA binding proteins p40-TIA-1 and TIAR
This subfamily corresponds to the RRM1 of nucleolysin TIA-1 isoform p40 (p40-TIA-1 or TIA-1) and nucleolysin TIA-1-related protein (TIAR), both of which are granule-associated RNA binding proteins involved in inducing apoptosis in cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) target cells. TIA-1 and TIAR share high sequence similarity. They are expressed in a wide variety of cell types. TIA-1 can be phosphorylated by a serine/threonine kinase that is activated during Fas-mediated apoptosis.TIAR is mainly localized in the nucleus of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. It is translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in response to exogenous triggers of apoptosis. Both, TIA-1 and TIAR, bind specifically to poly(A) but not to poly(C) homopolymers. They are composed of three N-terminal highly homologous RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), also termed RBDs (RNA binding domains) or RNPs (ribonucleoprotein domains), and a glutamine-rich C-terminal auxiliary domain containing a lysosome-targeting motif. TIA-1 and TIAR interact with RNAs containing short stretches of uridylates and their RRM2 can mediate the specific binding to uridylate-rich RNAs. The C-terminal auxiliary domain may be responsible for interacting with other proteins. In addition, TIA-1 and TIAR share a potential serine protease-cleavage site (Phe-Val-Arg) localized at the junction between their RNA binding domains and their C-terminal auxiliary domains.