RNA recognition motif 1 (RRM1) found in TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) and similar proteins
This subfamily corresponds to the RRM1 of TDP-43 (also termed TARDBP), a ubiquitously expressed pathogenic protein whose normal function and abnormal aggregation are directly linked to the genetic disease cystic fibrosis, and two neurodegenerative disorders: frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 binds both DNA and RNA, and has been implicated in transcriptional repression, pre-mRNA splicing and translational regulation. TDP-43 is a dimeric protein with two RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), also termed RBDs (RNA binding domains) or RNPs (ribonucleoprotein domains), and a C-terminal glycine-rich domain. The RRMs are responsible for DNA and RNA binding; they bind to TAR DNA and RNA sequences with UG-repeats. The glycine-rich domain can interact with the hnRNP family proteins to form the hnRNP-rich complex involved in splicing inhibition. It is also essential for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) exon 9-skipping activity.