cytochrome P450 family 503, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 and similar cytochrome P450s
This family is composed of predominantly fungal cytochrome P450s (CYPs) with similarity to Fusarium fujikuroi Cytochrome P450 503A1 (CYP503A1, also called ent-kaurene oxidase or cytochrome P450-4), Aspergillus nidulans austinol synthesis protein I (ausI), Alternaria alternata tentoxin synthesis protein 1 (TES1), and Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus cytochrome P450 51 (CYP51, also called P450-LIA1 or sterol 14-alpha demethylase). Ent-kaurene oxidase catalyzes three successive oxidations of the 4-methyl group of ent-kaurene to form kaurenoic acid, an intermediate in gibberellin biosynthesis. AusI and TES1 are cytochrome P450 monooxygenases that mediate the biosynthesis of the meroterpenoids, austinol and dehydroaustinol, and the phytotoxin tentoxin, respectively. P450-LIA1 catalyzes the 14-alpha demethylation of obtusifoliol and functions in steroid biosynthesis. This family belongs to the large cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) superfamily of heme-containing proteins that catalyze a variety of oxidative reactions of a large number of structurally different endogenous and exogenous compounds in organisms from all major domains of life. CYPs bind their diverse ligands in a buried, hydrophobic active site, which is accessed through a substrate access channel formed by two flexible helices and their connecting loop.