Winged-helix domain of essential DNA replication protein Cell division control protein (Cdc6), which mediates DNA binding.
This model characterizes the winged-helix, C-terminal domain of the Cell division control protein (Cdc6_C). Cdc6 (also known as Cell division cycle 6 or Cdc18) functions as a regulator at the early stages of DNA replication, by helping to recruit and load the Minichromosome Maintenance Complex (MCM) onto DNA and may have additional roles in the control of mitotic entry. Precise duplication of chromosomal DNA is required for genomic stability during replication. Cdc6 has an essential role in DNA replication and irregular expression of Cdc6 may lead to genomic instability. Cdc6 over-expression is observed in many cancerous lesions. DNA replication begins when an origin recognition complex (ORC) binds to a replication origin site on the chromatin. Studies indicate that Cdc6 interacts with ORC through the Orc1 subunit, and that this association increases the specificity of the ORC-origins interaction. Further studies suggest that hydrolysis of Cdc6-bound ATP promotes the association of the replication licensing factor Cdt1 with origins through an interaction with Orc6 and this in turn promotes the loading of MCM2-7 helicase onto chromatin. The MCM2-7 complex promotes the unwinding of DNA origins, and the binding of additional factors to initiate the DNA replication. S-Cdk (S-phase cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase complex) prevents rereplication by causing the Cdc6 protein to dissociate from ORC and prevents the Cdc6 and MCM proteins from reassembling at any origin. By phosphorylating Cdc6, S-Cdk also triggers Cdc6's ubiquitination. The Cdc6 protein is composed of three domains, an N-terminal AAA+ domain with Walker A and B, and Sensor-1 and -2 motifs. The central region contains a conserved nucleotide binding/ATPase domain and is a member of the ATPase superfamily. The C-terminal domain (Cdc6_C) is a conserved winged-helix domain that possibly mediates protein-protein interactions or direct DNA interactions. Cdc6 is conserved in eukaryotes, and related genes are found in Archaea. The winged helix fold structure of Cdc6_C is similar to the structures of other eukaryotic replication initiators without apparent sequence similarity.