C2 domain found in Rab11-family interacting proteins (FIP) class I
Rab GTPases recruit various effector proteins to organelles and vesicles. Rab11-family interacting proteins (FIPs) are involved in mediating the role of Rab11. FIPs can be divided into three classes: class I FIPs (Rip11a, Rip11b, RCP, and FIP2) which contain a C2 domain after N-terminus of the protein, class II FIPs (FIP3 and FIP4) which contain two EF-hands and a proline rich region, and class III FIPs (FIP1) which exhibits no homology to known protein domains. All FIP proteins contain a highly conserved, 20-amino acid motif at the C-terminus of the protein, known as Rab11/25 binding domain (RBD). Class I FIPs are thought to bind to endocytic membranes via their C2 domain, which interacts directly with phospholipids. Class II FIPs do not have any membrane binding domains leaving much to speculate about the mechanism involving FIP3 and FIP4 interactions with endocytic membranes. The members in this CD are class I FIPs. The exact function of the Rab11 and FIP interaction is unknown, but there is speculation that it involves the role of forming a targeting complex that recruits a group of proteins involved in membrane transport to organelles. The C2 domain was first identified in PKC. C2 domains fold into an 8-standed beta-sandwich that can adopt 2 structural arrangements: Type I and Type II, distinguished by a circular permutation involving their N- and C-terminal beta strands. Many C2 domains are Ca2+-dependent membrane-targeting modules that bind a wide variety of substances including bind phospholipids, inositol polyphosphates, and intracellular proteins. Most C2 domain proteins are either signal transduction enzymes that contain a single C2 domain, such as protein kinase C, or membrane trafficking proteins which contain at least two C2 domains, such as synaptotagmin 1. However, there are a few exceptions to this including RIM isoforms and some splice variants of piccolo/aczonin and intersectin which only have a single C2 domain. C2 domains with a calcium binding region have negatively charged residues, primarily aspartates, that serve as ligands for calcium ions.