C2 domain found in fungal Ingression 1 (Inn1) proteins
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Inn1 associates with the contractile actomyosin ring at the end of mitosis and is needed for cytokinesis. The C2 domain of Inn1, located at the N-terminus, is required for ingression of the plasma membrane. The C-terminus is relatively unstructured and contains eight PXXP motifs that are thought to mediate interaction of Inn1 with other proteins with SH3 domains in the cytokinesis proteins Hof1 (an F-BAR protein) and Cyk3 (whose overexpression can restore primary septum formation in Inn1Delta cells) as well as recruiting Inn1 to the bud-neck by binding to Cyk3. Inn1 and Cyk3 appear to cooperate in activating chitin synthase Chs2 for primary septum formation, which allows coordination of actomyosin ring contraction with ingression of the cleavage furrow. It is thought that the C2 domain of Inn1 helps to preserve the link between the actomyosin ring and the plasma membrane, contributing both to membrane ingression, as well as to stability of the contracting ring. Additionally, Inn1 might induce curvature of the plasma membrane adjacent to the contracting ring, thereby promoting ingression of the membrane. It has been shown that the C2 domain of human synaptotagmin induces curvature in target membranes and thereby contributes to fusion of these membranes with synaptic vesicles. The C2 domain was first identified in PKC. C2 domains fold into an 8-standed beta-sandwich that can adopt 2 structural arrangements: Type I and Type II, distinguished by a circular permutation involving their N- and C-terminal beta strands. Many C2 domains are Ca2+-dependent membrane-targeting modules that bind a wide variety of substances including bind phospholipids, inositol polyphosphates, and intracellular proteins. Most C2 domain proteins are either signal transduction enzymes that contain a single C2 domain, such as protein kinase C, or membrane trafficking proteins which contain at least two C2 domains, such as synaptotagmin1. However, there are a few exceptions to this including RIM isoforms and some splice variants of piccolo/aczonin and intersectin which only have a single C2 domain. C2 domains with a calcium binding region have negatively charged residues, primarily aspartates, that serve as ligands for calcium ions.