The substrate binding component of an ABC-type lactococcal OppA-like transport system contains
This family represents the substrate binding domain of an ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-type oligopeptide import system from Lactococcus lactis and other gram-positive bacteria, as well as its closet homologs from gram-negative bacteria. Oligopeptide-binding protein (OppA) from Lactococcus lactis can bind peptides of length from 4 to at least 35 residues without sequence preference. The oligopeptide import system OppABCDEF is consisting of five subunits: two homologous integral membrane proteins OppB and OppF that form the translocation pore; two homologous nucleotide-binding domains OppD and OppF that drive the transport process through binding and hydrolysis of ATP; and the substrate-binding protein or receptor OppA that determines the substrate specificity of the transport system. The dipeptide (DppA) and oligopeptide (OppA) binding proteins differ in several ways. The DppA binds dipeptides and some tripeptides and also is involved in chemotaxis toward dipeptides, whereas the OppA binds peptides of a wide range of lengths (2-35 residues) and plays a role in recycling of cell wall peptides, which precludes any involvement in chemotaxis. Most of other periplasmic binding proteins are comprised of only two globular subdomains corresponding to domains I and III of the dipeptide/oligopeptide binding proteins. The structural topology of these domains is most similar to that of the type 2 periplasmic binding proteins (PBP2), which are responsible for the uptake of a variety of substrates such as phosphate, sulfate, polysaccharides, lysine/arginine/ornithine, and histidine. The PBP2 bind their ligand in the cleft between these domains in a manner resembling a Venus flytrap. After binding their specific ligand with high affinity, they can interact with a cognate membrane transport complex comprised of two integral membrane domains and two cytoplasmically located ATPase domains. This interaction triggers the ligand translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane energized by ATP hydrolysis. Besides transport proteins, the PBP2 superfamily includes the ligand-binding domains from ionotropic glutamate receptors, LysR-type transcriptional regulators, and unorthodox sensor proteins involved in signal transduction.