The C-terminal substrate domain of LysR-type transcriptional regulators CysB-like contains type 2 periplasmic binding fold.
CysB is a transcriptional activator of genes involved in sulfate and thiosulfate transport, sulfate reduction, and cysteine synthesis. In Escherichia coli, the regulation of transcription in response to sulfur source is attributed to two transcriptional regulators, CysB and Cbl. CysB, in association with Cbl, downregulates the expression of ssuEADCB operon which is required for the utilization of sulfur from aliphatic sulfonates, in the presence of cysteine. Also, Cbl and CysB together directly function as transcriptional activators of tauABCD genes, which are required for utilization of taurine as sulfur source for growth. Like many other members of the LTTR family, CysB is composed of two functional domains joined by a linker helix involved in oligomerization: an N-terminal HTH (helix-turn-helix) domain, which is responsible for the DNA-binding specificity, and a C-terminal substrate-binding domain, which is structurally homologous to the type 2 periplasmic binding proteins. As also observed in the periplasmic binding proteins, the C-terminal domain of the bacterial transcriptional repressor undergoes a conformational change upon substrate binding which in turn changes the DNA binding affinity of the repressor. The structural topology of this substrate-binding domain is most similar to that of the type 2 periplasmic binding proteins (PBP2), which are responsible for the uptake of a variety of substrates such as phosphate, sulfate, polysaccharides, lysine/arginine/ornithine, and histidine. The PBP2 bind their ligand in the cleft between these domains in a manner resembling a Venus flytrap. After binding their specific ligand with high affinity, they can interact with a cognate membrane transport complex comprised of two integral membrane domains and two cytoplasmically located ATPase domains. This interaction triggers the ligand translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane energized by ATP hydrolysis. Besides transport proteins, the PBP2 superfamily includes the substrate-binding domains from ionotropic glutamate receptors, LysR-like transcriptional regulators, and unorthodox sensor proteins involved in signal transduction.