C2 domain present in Smad ubiquitination-related factor (Smurf)-like proteins
A single C2 domain is found in Smurf proteins, C2-WW-HECT-domain E3s, which play an important role in the downregulation of the TGF-beta signaling pathway. Smurf proteins also regulate cell shape, motility, and polarity by degrading small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases). C2 domains fold into an 8-standed beta-sandwich that can adopt 2 structural arrangements: Type I and Type II, distinguished by a circular permutation involving their N- and C-terminal beta strands. Many C2 domains are Ca2+-dependent membrane-targeting modules that bind a wide variety of substances including bind phospholipids, inositol polyphosphates, and intracellular proteins. Most C2 domain proteins are either signal transduction enzymes that contain a single C2 domain, such as protein kinase C, or membrane trafficking proteins which contain at least two C2 domains, such as synaptotagmin 1. However, there are a few exceptions to this including RIM isoforms and some splice variants of piccolo/aczonin and intersectin which only have a single C2 domain. C2 domains with a calcium binding region have negatively charged residues, primarily aspartates, that serve as ligands for calcium ions. Members here have type-II topology.