Glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenases (FDHs, Class III ADH) are members of the zinc-dependent/medium chain alcohol dehydrogenase family. FDH converts formaldehyde and NAD(P) to formate and NAD(P)H. The initial step in this process the spontaneous formation of a S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione adduct from formaldehyde and glutathione, followed by FDH-mediated oxidation (and detoxification) of the adduct to S-formylglutathione. NAD(P)(H)-dependent oxidoreductases are the major enzymes in the interconversion of alcohols and aldehydes or ketones. Alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver converts ethanol and NAD+ to acetaldehyde and NADH, while in yeast and some other microorganisms ADH catalyzes the conversion acetaldehyde to ethanol in alcoholic fermentation. Class III ADH are also known as glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH), which convert aldehydes to corresponding carboxylic acid and alcohol. ADH is a member of the medium chain alcohol dehydrogenase family (MDR), which has a NAD(P)(H)-binding domain in a Rossmann fold of an beta-alpha form. The NAD(H)-binding region is comprised of 2 structurally similar halves, each of which contacts a mononucleotide. A GxGxxG motif after the first mononucleotide contact half allows the close contact of the coenzyme with the ADH backbone. The N-terminal catalytic domain has a distant homology to GroES. These proteins typically form dimers (typically higher plants, mammals) or tetramers (yeast, bacteria), and have 2 tightly bound zinc atoms per subunit, a catalytic zinc at the active site and a structural zinc in a lobe of the catalytic domain. NAD(H) binding occurs in the cleft between the catalytic and coenzyme-binding domains at the active site, and coenzyme binding induces a conformational closing of this cleft. Coenzyme binding typically precedes and contributes to substrate binding.