The Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain of Sorting Nexin 9
BAR domains are dimerization, lipid binding and curvature sensing modules found in many different proteins with diverse functions. Sorting nexins (SNXs) are Phox homology (PX) domain containing proteins that are involved in regulating membrane traffic and protein sorting in the endosomal system. SNXs differ from each other in their lipid-binding specificity, subcellular localization and specific function in the endocytic pathway. A subset of SNXs also contain BAR domains. The PX-BAR structural unit determines the specific membrane targeting of SNXs. SNX9, also known as SH3PX1, is a cytosolic protein that interacts with proteins associated with clathrin-coated pits such as Cdc-42-associated tyrosine kinase 2 (ACK2). It binds class I polyproline sequences found in dynamin 1/2 and the WASP/N-WASP actin regulators. SNX9 is localized to plasma membrane endocytic sites and acts primarily in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Its array of interacting partners suggests that SNX9 functions at the interface between endocytosis and actin cytoskeletal organization. BAR domains form dimers that bind to membranes, induce membrane bending and curvature, and may also be involved in protein-protein interactions.