The Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain of Sorting Nexin 5
BAR domains are dimerization, lipid binding and curvature sensing modules found in many different proteins with diverse functions. Sorting nexins (SNXs) are Phox homology (PX) domain containing proteins that are involved in regulating membrane traffic and protein sorting in the endosomal system. SNXs differ from each other in their lipid-binding specificity, subcellular localization and specific function in the endocytic pathway. A subset of SNXs also contain BAR domains. The PX-BAR structural unit determines the specific membrane targeting of SNXs. SNX5, abundantly expressed in macrophages, regulates macropinocytosis, a process that enables cells to internalize large amounts of external solutes. It may also be a component of the retromer complex, a membrane coat multimeric complex required for endosomal retrieval of lysosomal hydrolase receptors to the Golgi, acting as a mammalian equivalent of yeast Vsp17p. It also binds the Fanconi anaemia complementation group A protein (FANCA). SNX5 is localized to a subdomain of early endosome and is recruited to the plasma membrane following EGF stimulation and elevation of PI(3,4)P2 levels. BAR domains form dimers that bind to membranes, induce membrane bending and curvature, and may also be involved in protein-protein interactions.