The phosphoinositide binding Phox Homology domain of Sorting Nexin 3
The PX domain is a phosphoinositide (PI) binding module present in many proteins with diverse functions. Sorting nexins (SNXs) make up the largest group among PX domain containing proteins. They are involved in regulating membrane traffic and protein sorting in the endosomal system. The PX domain of SNXs binds PIs and targets the protein to PI-enriched membranes. SNXs differ from each other in PI-binding specificity and affinity, and the presence of other protein-protein interaction domains, which help determine subcellular localization and specific function in the endocytic pathway. SNX3 associates with early endosomes through a PX domain-mediated interaction with phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P). It associates with the retromer complex, a membrane coat multimeric complex required for endosomal retrieval of lysosomal hydrolase receptors to the Golgi, and functions as a cargo-specific adaptor for the retromer. SNX3 is required for the formation of multivesicular bodies, which function as transport intermediates to late endosomes. It also promotes cell surface expression of the amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), which is critical in sodium homeostasis and maintenance of extracellular fluid volume.
Comment:Two basic residues are key in binding with phosphoinositides: one forms hydrogen bonds with the 3-phosphate of PI(3)P and another forms hydrogen bonds with the 4-and 5-hydroxyl groups of PI(3)P.