The phosphoinositide binding Phox Homology domain of Sorting Nexin 1
The PX domain is a phosphoinositide (PI) binding module present in many proteins with diverse functions. Sorting nexins (SNXs) make up the largest group among PX domain containing proteins. They are involved in regulating membrane traffic and protein sorting in the endosomal system. The PX domain of SNXs binds PIs and targets the protein to PI-enriched membranes. SNXs differ from each other in PI-binding specificity and affinity, and the presence of other protein-protein interaction domains, which help determine subcellular localization and specific function in the endocytic pathway. SNX1 is both membrane associated and a cytosolic protein that exists as a tetramer in protein complexes. It can associate reversibly with membranes of the endosomal compartment, thereby coating these vesicles. SNX1 is a component of the retromer complex, a membrane coat multimeric complex required for endosomal retrieval of lysosomal hydrolase receptors to the Golgi. The retromer consists of a cargo-recognition subcomplex and a subcomplex formed by a dimer of sorting nexins (SNX1 and/or SNX2), which ensures efficient cargo sorting by facilitating proper membrane localization of the cargo-recognition subcomplex. SNX1 contains a Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain C-terminal to the PX domain. The PX domain of SNX1 specifically binds phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) and PI(3,5)P2, while the BAR domain detects membrane curvature. Both domains help determine the specific membrane-targeting of SNX1, which is localized to a microdomain in early endosomes where it regulates cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor retrieval to the trans Golgi network.
Comment:Two basic residues are key in binding with phosphoinositides: one forms hydrogen bonds with the 3-phosphate of PI(3)P and another forms hydrogen bonds with the 4-and 5-hydroxyl groups of PI(3)P.